KS4 Curriculum Guide - Year 10 Science
Term 14.2 Organisation and 4.3 Infection and defence
In this section we will learn about the human digestive system which provides the body with nutrients and the respiratory system that provides it with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. In each case they provide dissolved materials that need to be moved quickly around the body in the blood by the circulatory system. Damage to any of these systems can be debilitating if not fatal. Although there has been huge progress in surgical techniques, especially with regard to coronary heart disease, many interventions would not be necessary if individuals reduced their risks through improved diet and lifestyle. We will also learn how the plant’s transport system is dependent on environmental conditions to ensure that leaf cells are provided with the water and carbon dioxide that they need for photosynthesis. Pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria that cause infectious diseases in animals and plants. They depend on their host to provide the conditions and nutrients that they need to grow and reprod
Assessment: This assessment is 100 minutes maximum. There are normally 70-80 marks per assessment. Students will be tested on the main topics from this unit including; digestion, respiratory system, coronary heart disease, non communicable diseases, plant transport systems, photosynthesis, pathogens and disease in plants and animalsKey Words and Terms
 
Term 14.4 Bioenergetics
In this section we will explore how plants harness the Sun’s energy in photosynthesis in order to make food. This process liberates oxygen which has built up over millions of years in the Earth’s atmosphere. Both animals and plants use this oxygen to oxidise food in a process called aerobic respiration which transfers the energy that the organism needs to perform its functions. Conversely, anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen to transfer energy. During vigorous exercise the human body is unable to supply the cells with sufficient oxygen and it switches to anaerobic respiration. This process will supply energy but also causes the build-up of lactic acid in muscles which causes fatigue.
Assessment: Key Words and Terms
 
Term 25.4 Chemical Changes
Understanding of chemical changes began when people began experimenting with chemical reactions in a systematic way and organising their results logically. Knowing about these different chemical changes meant that scientists could begin to predict exactly what new substances would be formed and use this knowledge to develop a wide range of different materials and processes. It also helped biochemists to understand the complex reactions that take place in living organisms. The extraction of important resources from the Earth makes use of the way that some elements and compounds react with each other and how easily they can be ‘pulled apart’. The chemistry of carbon compounds is so important that it forms a separate branch of chemistry. A great variety of carbon compounds is possible because carbon atoms can form chains and rings linked by C-C bonds. This branch of chemistry gets its name from the fact that the main sources of organic compounds are living, or once-living materials from plants and animals. Thes
Assessment: Key Words and Terms
 
Term 25.5 Energy Changes
In this unit students will consider that the Earth’s atmosphere is dynamic and forever changing. The causes of these changes are sometimes man-made and sometimes part of many natural cycles. Scientists use very complex software to predict weather and climate change as there are many variables that can influence this. The problems caused by increased levels of air pollutants require scientists and engineers to develop solutions that help to reduce the impact of human activity. Industries use the Earth’s natural resources to manufacture useful products. In order to operate sustainably, chemists seek to minimise the use of limited resources, use of energy, waste and environmental impact in the manufacture of these products. Chemists also aim to develop ways of disposing of products at the end of their useful life in ways that ensure that materials and stored energy are utilised. Pollution, disposal of waste products and changing land use has a significant effect on the environment, and environmental chemists st
Assessment: Key Words and Terms
 
Term 36.5 Forces
Students will consider that wave behaviour is common in both natural and man-made systems. Waves carry energy from one place to another and can also carry information. Designing comfortable and safe structures such as bridges, houses and music performance halls requires an understanding of mechanical waves. Modern technologies such as imaging and communication systems show how we can make the most of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic effects are used in a wide variety of devices. Engineers make use of the fact that a magnet moving in a coil can produce electric current and also that when current flows around a magnet it can produce movement. It means that systems that involve control or communications can take full advantage of this.
Assessment: Key Words and Terms
 
Term 36.3 Particles and 6.4 Atomic Structure
Students will consider the particle model which is widely used to predict the behaviour of solids, liquids and gases and this has many applications in everyday life. It helps us to explain a wide range of observations and engineers use these principles when designing vessels to withstand high pressures and temperatures, such as submarines and spacecraft. It also explains why it is difficult to make a good cup of tea high up a mountain! Ionising radiation is hazardous but can be very useful. Although radioactivity was discovered over a century ago, it took many nuclear physicists several decades to understand the structure of atoms, nuclear forces and stability. Early researchers suffered from their exposure to ionising radiation. Rules for radiological protection were first introduced in the 1930s and subsequently improved. Today radioactive materials are widely used in medicine, industry, agriculture and electrical power generation.
Assessment: Key Words and Terms
 
Term 44.5 Homeostasis and 4.6 Inheritance
Students will consider the fact that cells in the body can only survive within narrow limits. They require a constant temperature, pH and a constant supply of dissolved food and water. In this section we will explore the nervous system and how it can bring about fast responses. We will also explore the hormonal system which usually brings about much slower changes. Hormonal coordination is particularly important in reproduction since it controls the menstrual cycle. An understanding of the role of hormones in reproduction has allowed scientists to develop not only contraceptive drugs but also drugs which can increase fertility. We will then discover how meiosis produces unique offspring, how gene mutations occur continuously and on rare occasions can affect the functioning of organisms both positively and negatively. We will investigate cloning and genetic engineering.
Assessment: The assessment will be a set of past exam questions with between 70-80 marks available to pupils. They should aim to answer one mark per minute. The questions will be a mixture of short answer and long answer questions, each worth 1-6 marks. Pupils we be expected to recall knowledge, describe and explain theories, complete calculations and apply their understanding to previously unknown data or scenarios. They should focus on sections 5 and 6 of the AQA Biology GCSE Specification, ignoring any parts labelled as 'Biology Only'. URL: http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/science/gcse/biology-8461 Key Words and Terms
 
Term 55.6 Rate and Extent of Chemical Change
Students will consider that energy changes are an important part of chemical reactions. The interaction of particles often involves transfers of energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released to the surroundings are exothermic reactions, while those that take in thermal energy are endothermic. These interactions between particles can produce heating or cooling effects that are used in a range of everyday applications. Some interactions between ions in an electrolyte result in the production of electricity. Cells and batteries use these chemical reactions to provide electricity. Electricity can also be used to decompose ionic substances and is a useful means of producing elements that are too expensive to extract any other way. Chemical reactions can occur at vastly different rates. Whilst the reactivity of chemicals is a significant factor in how fast chemical reactions proceed, there are many variables that can be manipulated in order to speed them up or slow them d
Assessment: Key Words and Terms
 
Term 55.3 Quantitative Chemistry and 5.8 Chemical Analysis
In this topic we will look at how Chemists use quantitative analysis to determine the formulae of compounds and the equations for reactions. Identifying different types of chemical reaction allows chemists to make sense of how different chemicals react together, to establish patterns and to make predictions about the behaviour of other chemicals. Analysts have developed a range of qualitative tests to detect specific chemicals. The tests are based on reactions that produce a gas with distinctive properties, or a colour change or an insoluble solid that appears as a precipitate. Instrumental methods provide fast, sensitive and accurate means of analysing chemicals, and are particularly useful when the amount of chemical being analysed is small. Forensic scientists and drug control scientists rely on such instrumental methods in their work
Assessment: The assessment will be a set of past exam questions with between 70-80 marks available to pupils. They should aim to answer one mark per minute. The questions will be a mixture of short answer and long answer questions, each worth 1-6 marks. Pupils we be expected to recall knowledge, describe and explain theories, complete calculations and apply their understanding to previously unknown data or scenarios. They should focus on sections 3 and 8 of the AQA Biology GCSE Specification, ignoring any parts labelled as 'Chemistry Only'. URL: http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/science/gcse/chemistry-8462Key Words and Terms
 
Term 6End of Year Exams
We will consider the Sun as a source of energy that passes through ecosystems. Materials including carbon and water are continually recycled by the living world, being released through respiration of animals, plants and decomposing microorganisms and taken up by plants in photosynthesis. All species live in ecosystems composed of complex communities of animals and plants dependent on each other and that are adapted to particular conditions, both abiotic and biotic. These ecosystems provide essential services that support human life and continued development. In order to continue to benefit from these services humans need to engage with the environment in a sustainable way. In this section we will explore how humans are threatening biodiversity as well as the natural systems that support it. We will also consider some actions we need to take to ensure our future health, prosperity and well-being.
Assessment: The assessment will be a set of past exam questions with between 70-80 marks available to pupils. They should aim to answer one mark per minute. The questions will be a mixture of short answer and long answer questions, each worth 1-6 marks. Pupils we be expected to recall knowledge, describe and explain theories, complete calculations and apply their understanding to previously unknown data or scenarios. They should focus on sections 7 of the AQA Biology GCSE Specification, ignoring any parts labelled as 'Biology Only'. URL: http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/science/gcse/biology-8461Key Words and Terms
 

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