##### Key Words and Meanings - Year 7 Maths
• Introduction to algebra , Positive & Negative Numbers & Perimeter, Area & Volume
 Expression An algebraic expression is a mathematical phrase that can contain ordinary numbers, variables (like x or y) and operators (like add, subtract, multiply, and divide). ... In the above expression the "/" means divide. The "3x" means multiply the variable x Substitution To change one thing for another. You might be asked to substitute a number into an expression. For example , what is the value of 4p3 when p = 2? We know that 4p3 means 4 × p × p × p, so when p = 2 we substitute this into the expression: 4 × 2 × 2 × 2 (or Simplify To make simpler. One of the big jobs we do in Algebra is simplification. You will often be asked to put something "in simplest form". Formula A formula is a special type of equation that shows the relationship between different variables. A variable is a symbol like x or V that stands in for a number we don't know yet. Financial Connected to money matters. Arithmetic Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics. It consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations between them—addition, subtraction, Negative number A number lower than zero e.g. -1, -2 Multiply Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point " · ", by the absence of symbol, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary, mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and Perimeter The perimeter is the length of the outline of a shape. To find the perimeter of a rectangle or square you have to add the lengths of all the four sides. x is in this case the length of the rectangle while y is the width of the rectangle. Area The area of a shape is a measure of the 2 dimensional space that it covers. Area is measured in squares - e.g. square cm, square metres and square km. Compound shape In maths, a compound shape consists of two or more simple shapes, such as triangles, squares, circles and rectangles. Another name for a compound shape is a composite shape. An example of this concept is a triangle placed on top of a square. 2D '2D' stands for 2-dimensional. A 2D shape is any shape that has two dimensions. Think about what it means to have two dimensions for a moment. If we had only one dimension to work with, we could only move backwards or forwards in a line. A line is one-dim Volume The amount of space that a substance or object occupies, or that is enclosed within a container. Cuboid a solid which has six rectangular faces at right angles to each other.2.ANATOMY
• Fractions, Working with Numbers, Statistics
 Equivalent fraction Equivalent fractions are fractions that look different but show exactly the same amount. You can make equivalent fractions by multiplying or dividing the numerator and denominator by the same number. You can simplify fractions by dividing the numerator an Fraction A numerical quantity that is not a whole number (e.g. 1/2, 0.5). Mixed numbers A number like 1 and 1/2 is a mixed number because it is a mix of a whole number and a fraction. Improper fraction Improper Fractions: The numerator is greater than (or equal to) the denominator. Examples: 4/3, 11/4, 7/7. Mixed Fractions: A whole number and proper fraction together. Calculation A mathematical determination of the amount or number of something. Square number The product of a number multiplied by itself, e.g. 1, 4, 9, 16. Square root A number which produces a specified quantity when multiplied by itself. Rounding Alter (a number) to one less exact but more convenient for calculations. Mode The "mode" is the value that occurs most often. If no number is repeated, then there is no mode for the list. Median To find the median, your numbers have to be listed in numerical order, so you may have to rewrite your list first. Statistic A fact or piece of data obtained from a study of a large quantity of numerical data. Discrete data Discrete data can be numeric -- like numbers of apples -- but it can also be categorical -- like red or blue, or male or female, or good or bad. Continuous data Continuous data are not restricted to defined separate values, but can occupy any value over a continuous range.
• Sequences & Functions, Decimal Numbers, Angles in Triangles, Quadrilaterals & Parallel Lines
 Function machine Function Machine is a fun and flexible way to encourage communication and algebraic thinking. It also provides a context for introducing and using some of the tools of algebra, such as T-charts. Sequence A particular order in which related things follow each other. Rules A number less than zero. Missing term A close guess of the actual value, usually with some thought or calculation involved. nth term One of a set of explicit or understood regulations or principles governing conduct or procedure within a particular area of activity. Decimal Relating to or denoting a system of numbers and arithmetic based on the number ten, tenth parts, and powers of ten. Estimate Roughly calculate or judge the value, number, quantity, or extent of. Angle The space (usually measured in degrees) between two intersecting lines or surfaces at or close to the point where they meet. Triangle A plane figure with three straight sides and three angles. Quadrilateral A four-sided figure.
• Co-ordinates and Graphs, Percentages & Probability
 Co-ordinate Coordinate Graphing. ... A coordinate grid has two perpendicular lines, or axes, labelled like number lines. The horizontal axis is called the x-axis. The vertical axis is called the y-axis. The point where the x-axis and y-axis intersect is called the or Quadrant The four regions of a coordinate plane. Graph A graphical/visual representation of data. Prediction A prediction is a reasonable guess as to what will happen. Fraction A fraction is a part of a whole, for example 1/2. Equivalent fractions are fractions that look different but show the same amount. Improper fractions have numerators that are higher than the denominator, while mixed fractions contain whole numbers and fra Decimal A decimal is any number in our base-ten number system. Specifically, we will be using numbers that have one or more digits to the right of the decimal point in this unit of lessons. The decimal point is used to separate the ones place from the tenths plac Percentage A percentage is a fraction whose denominator (bottom) is 100. So if we say 50%, we mean 50/100 = 1/2 (after cancelling). So 50% means ½. Increase Mathematics. (of a function) having the property that for any two points in the domain such that one is larger than the other, the image of the larger point is greater than or equal to the image of the smaller point; non-decreasing. Decrease For any two points, one is smaller than the other. Probability the total number of possible outcomes. For example, the probability of flipping a coin and it being heads is ½, because there is 1 way of getting a head and the total number of possible outcomes is 2 (a head or tail). We write P(heads) = ½ . The probabili
• Symmetry, Equations & Interpreting Data
 Symmetry Symmetry is when one shape becomes exactly like another if you flip, slide or turn it. The simplest type of Symmetry is "Reflection" (or "Mirror") Rotation The mathematical notation for rotation is usually written like this. R (centre, rotation), where the centre is the point of rotation and the rotation is given in degrees. Often, rotations are written using coordinate notation, which means that their coord Reflection If you look in a mirror, you see your own image. You (the object) and your image appear to be the same distance from the mirror. An object and its image are always the same perpendicular distance from the mirror line. (Perpendicular means 'at right-angles Tessellation A tessellation is created when a shape is repeated over and over again covering a plane without any gaps or overlaps. Another word for a tessellation is a tiling. Equation An equation says that two things are equal. It will have an equals sign "=" like this: 7 + 2 = 10 − 1. That equation says: what is on the left (7 + 2) is equal to what is on the right (10 − 1) So an equation is like a statement "this equals that" Pie Chart A pie chart (or a circle chart) is a circular statistical graphic, which is divided into slices to illustrate numerical proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each slice (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity Range The difference between the lowest and highest values. In {4, 6, 9, 3, 7} the lowest value is 3, and the highest is 9, so the range is 9 − 3 = 6. Range can also mean all the output values of a function. Average Mean, median, and mode are three kinds of "averages". ... The "mean" is the "average" you're used to, where you add up all the numbers and then divide by the number of numbers. The "median" is the "middle" value in the list of numbers. Statistical survey Mathematical statistics is the application of mathematics to statistics, which was originally conceived as the science of the state — the collection and analysis of facts about a country: its economy, land, military, population, and so forth.
• 3D Shapes & Ratio
 3D An object that has height, width and depth, like any object in the real world. Example: your body is three-dimensional. Shape The form of an object - how it is laid out in space (not what it is made of, or where it is). Common two dimensional (2D) shapes are: Circles, squares, triangles, etc. Common three dimensional (3D) shapes are: Spheres, cubes, pyramids, etc. Investigation Mathematical investigation refers to the sustained exploration of a mathematical situation. It distinguishes itself from problem solving because it is open-ended. Ratio A ratio is a statement of how two numbers compare. It is a comparison of the size of one number to the size of another number. Simplify To make simpler. One of the big jobs we do in Algebra is simplification. You will often be asked to put something "in simplest form" Problem A mathematical problem is a problem that is amenable to being represented, analysed, and possibly solved, with the methods of mathematics. This can be a real-world problem, such as computing the orbits of the planets in the solar system, or a problem of a