Key Words and Meanings - Year 8 Physical Education
  • Gymnastics
    ExtensionThe act of stretching or straightening out a flexed limb. 
    TensionThe squeezing or tightening of the muscles. 
    IndividualOriginal response demonstrating personality. 
    AestheticA subjective term meaning visually appealing. 
    RotationTo take turns; to turn around. 
    TransferThe smooth shift of body weight from one part of the body to another. 
    ElementsParts of something. 
    LevelsIncrementally more difficult activities. 
    TimingUnderstanding when to start, stop and continue an activity. 
    UnisonTogether. 
    CanonPerforming the same gymnastics actions starting at different times in pairs or a group. 
  • Rugby
    LeadershipTaking the first role and being in charge. Providing vision. 
    Verbal CommunicationUsing language to converse and communicate. 
    Non Verbal CommunicationUsing facial expression and body language to converse and communicate. 
    OrganisationA body of people with an infrastructure that have a particular purpose or specialism. 
    PositiveKeen, enthusiastic, engaged, hopeful. 
    MotivationReasons for doing something; keenness. 
    EncouragingUsing positive language to attempt to engage another person in an activity. 
    CooperativeTeamwork; working together positively. 
    TeamworkMore than two people successfully working together. 
    ControlEnsuring that a task or activity is planned and carefully carried out. 
  • Health Related Exercise
    Continuous TrainingContinuous training, also known as continuous exercise, is any type of physical training that involves activity without rest intervals. 
    Fartlek TrainingFartlek, which means "speed play" in Swedish, is a training method that blends continuous training with interval training. Fartlek runs are a very simple form of a long distance run. Fartlek training “is simply defined as periods of fast running intermixe 
    Interval TrainingPhysical training consisting of alternating periods of high- and low-intensity activity. 
    Circuit TrainingCircuit training is a form of body conditioning or resistance training using high-intensity aerobics. It targets strength building and muscular endurance. An exercise "circuit" is one completion of all prescribed exercises in the program. 
    FrequencyHow often something happens. 
    IntensityStrength and persistence. 
    ProgressionMoving forwards; improving. 
    OverloadTo put strain on the body; to perform to excess/tipping point. 
    TimeMeasurement of how long something takes. 
    TypeSort e.g. a type of exercise. 
  • Athletics
    RotationSequence; succession; sharing responsibility over even spaces of time. 
    AxisAn imaginary line about which a body rotates. 
    MomentumThe quantity of motion of a moving body, measured as a product of its mass and velocity. 
    Centre of GravityA point from which the weight of a body or system may be considered to act. In uniform gravity it is the same as the centre of mass. 
    ForceStrength or energy as an attribute of physical action or movement. 
    Explosive PowerThe rate of force development is at the maximum for any type of muscle action is explosive power. 
    PhasesA distinct period or stage in a process of change or forming part of something's development. 
    Take offPoint of explosive strength. 
    FlightA swift movement; passage through the air. 
    LandingPoint of meeting the ground and completing an activity. 
  • Striking and Fielding
    Back spinReverse rotation of a ball causing it to bounce or roll backward or stop short. Also called underspin. 
    Bowled outA batsman is bowled. Bowled is a method of dismissing a batsman in the sport of cricket. This method of dismissal is covered by Law 30 of the Laws of cricket. A batsman is out bowled if his wicket is put down by a ball delivered by the bowler. 
    ObstructionThe action of unlawfully obstructing a player in the opposing team. 
    InningsEach of two or four divisions of a game during which one side has a turn at batting. 
    Run OutA batsman is run out if at any time while the ball is in play no part of his bat or person is grounded behind the popping crease and his wicket is fairly put down by the opposing side. 
    Run UpIn cricket, a run-up is the approach a bowler makes when preparing to deliver the ball. The ball must be delivered from behind a bowling crease, but preparation to bowl the ball can be done any way the bowler wishes. 
    PowerA powerplay is the name for the fielding restrictions in limited-overs and Twenty20 cricket. 
    Reaction TimeThe speed at which a player acts following a move from an opposing team e.g. batting a ball thrown by the opposing team. 
    CoordinationMoving hands, eyes, legs etc. together to ensure a positive outcome in sport or physical activity. 
    AccuracyThe quality or state of being correct or precise. 
  • Badminton
    InterceptionTo seize and cut off (a pass). 
    StrategyMethod. 
    Creating SpaceUse of tactics and agility to create opportunities for yourself and teammates in games. 
    DeceptionMisleading opponents. 
    PossessionHolding on to the ball or to a space in a game. 
    MovementUsing the body to travel and play in activities. 
    Double LeadTwo players stand side by side in the middle of the two other players who stand 1 at each end. The two players split and drive out at opposite angles, one of them receives the ball from the feeder. The other player changes direction (to head back close to 
    DefenceEnsuring the opposition is unable to reclaim the advantage e.g. by protecting a teammate with a ball; protecting the ball or your team. 
    AttackAn aggressive action designed to gain the upper hand in a game. 
    CommunicationNon verbal and verbal cues to teammates to promote co-operation. 

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