Key Words and Meanings - Year 9 English
  • The Book Thief/Private Peaceful/The Woman in Black
    ImageryWords that create pictures in the readers mind. 
    NarratorThe main voice of a text. The voice that comments on plot or storyline in a play. 
    PerspectivePoint of view. 
    SubjectiveDependent on a single point of view e.g. a subjective opinion hasn’t considered all sides of the argument. 
    InferenceA conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning. 
    GenreA style or category of art, music, or literature. 
    EmpathyThe ability to understand and share the feelings of another. 
    ShiftA change in mood or tone. 
    PersonificationThe attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something non-human, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form. 
    ConsequencesA result or effect of an action. 
  • Crime and Punishment
    MysteryA situation where details and/or outcomes are unknown. 
    InterpretationA point of view on a topic. 
    DeductionArrive at (a fact or a conclusion) by reasoning; draw as a logical conclusion. 
    InferenceA conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning. 
    InvestigationTo collect evidence and study it in order to solve a problem or mystery. 
    PunishmentThe infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offence. 
    VictorianPertaining to the period when Victoria I was on the throne. 
    ConclusiveHaving or likely to have the effect of proving a case. 
    Paternalistic Restriction of the freedom and responsibilities of subordinates or dependants in their supposed interest. 
    AnalyticalRelating to or using analysis or logical reasoning. 
  • Blood Brothers
    SeparatedThe act of breaking something or people apart. 
    OppositesA mirror image difference e.g. black and white, hot and cold. 
    JealousyEnvy based on sexual feelings ie he was jealous because the man had stolen his girlfriend. 
    PovertyThe state of being extremely poor. 
    SuperstitionA widely held but irrational belief in supernatural influences, especially as leading to good or bad luck, or a practice based on such a belief. 
    NatureThe distinctive characteristics that someone or something is born with. 
    NurtureHow someone's environment influences their personality or character. 
    Social classA division of a society based on social and economic status.  
    Stage directionsInformation given by the playwright indicating setting and character behaviour. 
    ExpositionStarting point of the plot of a play. 
  • Romeo and Juliet
    FeudAn ongoing argument, sometimes lasting years. 
    JuxtapositionThe fact of two things being seen or placed close together with contrasting effect. 
    OxymoronA figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction. 
    Dramatic IronyThe expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect. 
    StagecraftSkill in or the art of writing or staging plays. 
    ShakespeareEnglish playwright (1564-1616) and poet whose works are noted for their plot, characterisation, wit and use of language. 
    Iambic PentameterA line of verse with five metrical feet, each consisting of one short (or unstressed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable, for example Two households, both alike in dignity. 
    Denouement The outcome of a situation, when something is decided or made clear. 
    PrologueA separate introductory section of a literary, dramatic, or musical work, which indicates the genre and plot. 
    FateThe development of events outside a person's control, regarded as predetermined by a supernatural power. 
  • Civil Rights
    RhetoricThe art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing. 
    EvaluationWhen someone looks at the positive and negative of something and makes a decision regarding whether it is worthwhile or helpful. 
    SegregationThe act or practice of segregating; a setting apart or separation of people or things from others or from the main body or group; the institutional separation of an ethnic, racial, religious, or other minority group from the dominant majority.  
    DiscriminationTreatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favour of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on individual merit. 
    RacismHatred or intolerance of another race or other races.  
    Non-violent resistanceThe practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political non-cooperation, or other methods, without using violence.  
    OratorA public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled. 
    CampaignAn organized course of action to achieve a goal. 
    PathosA quality that evokes pity or sadness. 
    AparthiedA policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race. 
  • Relationships Poetry
    ComparisonTo look at two or more things together for similarities and differences. 
    StanzaA group of lines forming the basic recurring metrical unit in a poem; a verse. 
    Internal rhymeA rhyme involving a word in the middle of a line and another at the end of the line or in the middle of the next. 
    EnjambmentThe continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza. 
    Iambic PentameterA line of verse with five metrical feet, each consisting of one short (or unstressed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable, for example Two households, both alike in dignity. 
    RhythmThe measured flow of words and phrases in verse or prose as determined by the relation of long and short or stressed and unstressed syllables. 
    RhymeTwo or more words that have the same sound e.g. gate and hate. 
    AlliterationRepetition of a specific consonant sound within text for effect. 
    NarratorThe speaker of a text or play. 
    PlosiveThe use of repeated 'b' or 'p' sound in order to create a forceful tone. 

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