Key Words and Meanings - Year 9 Geography
  • Globalisation
    GlobalisationThe process by which businesses or other organisations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale. 
    TNC (Transitional Corporation)Large and powerful businesses that have factories that make products and offices that sell products in different countries. 
    HICHigh Income Country. Those defines as have a GNI per capital of US$12, 735 or more. 
    MICMiddle income country. Those defined as having a GNI per capita between US$1,036 and $12,615. 
    LICLow income country. Countries with economies defined as those with a GNI per capita of US$1045 or less. 
    NEENewly Emerging Economy. A term used to describe a country whose level of economic development ranks between the LIC's and the HICs. These countries have moved away from an agriculture based economy and into a more industrialised, urban economy. 
    SweatshopsA factory or workshop, especially in the clothing industry, where manual workers are employed at very low wages for long hours and under poor conditions. 
    OffshoringRelocating corporate activities overseas. 
    OutsourcingMoving company functions from internal departments to external firms. 
    InterconnectedThe linking of things in a web.  
    Technological advanceThe improvement of technology.  
    Global villageThe term used to refer to the way the world is becoming increasingly 'smaller' and more connected. 
    Race to the bottomBusinesses moving their operations to developing countries where labour is cheaper.  
    Inter-dependenceThings mutually relying on each other. In geographical terms, countries are increasingly linked with each other.  
    Global supply chainA worldwide network where businesses source their resources from a variety of places.  
  • Natural Hazards 2
    FocusThe place in the earth that an earthquakes energy is released. 
    EpicentreThe place on the earth's surface, above the focus, that an earthquake hits. 
    Richter scaleA logarithmic scale that measures the magnitude of an earthquake.  
    SeismometerThe machine that measures earthquakes. 
    Tsunami"Large wave" in Japanese: a long, high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance.  
    Destructive plate marginOccurs when oceanic and continental plates move together, where earthquakes occur. 
    AvalancheA mass of snow, ice, and rocks falling rapidly down a mountainside. 
    SinkholeA cavity in the ground, especially in a limestone formation, caused by water erosion and providing a route for surface water to disappear underground. 
    Fire tornadoA fire whirl, also commonly known as a fire devil, or, (in many cases erroneously) as a fire tornado, firenado, fire swirl, or fire twister, is a whirlwind induced by a fire and often (at least partially) composed of flame or ash. 
  • Middle East
    ErgMassive crescent shaped sand dunes that are formed by winds blowing over the desert. These dunes can be several hundred metres high and several kilometres long.  
    DoldrumsAn equatorial region of the Atlantic Ocean with calms, sudden storms, and light unpredictable winds. 
    IsisThe Islamic State of Iraq and Syria is a highly organised group of ‘Jihadi’s’ who want to create a new country in the Middle East: The Islamic State. They are doing so violently 
    JihadA person who wages war in the name of religion.  
    SustainabilityMeeting the needs of the people of today without compromising the needs of the people of the future.  
    OPECOrganisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries - is an international organization whose mission is to coordinate the oil-production policies of its members in order to secure a steady income for them all. 
  • China
    PollutionThe introduction of harmful materials into the environment. 
    ImpactA marked effect or influence. 
    NEENewly Emerging Economy 
    CommunismCommunism is a type of government as well as an economic system (a way of creating and sharing wealth). In a Communist system, individual people do not own land, factories, or machinery. Instead, the government or the whole community owns these things.  
    UrbanisationThe process of an increased proportion of the population living in cities and towns. 
    DistributionThe spread of something. 
  • Living World - Ecosystems Part 1
    AbioticNon-living components of an ecosystem. 
    BioticLiving components of an ecosystem. 
    ConsumerA creature that eats animals and/or plant matter. 
    DecomposerAn organism such as a bacterium or fungus, that breaks down dead tissue, which is then recycled to the environment. 
    EcosystemA community of plants and animals that interact with each other and their physical environment. 
    Food chainThe connections between different organisms (plants and animals) that rely on one another as their source of food. 
    Food webA complex hierarchy of plants and animals relying on each other for food. 
    Nutrient cyclingA set of processes whereby organisms extract minerals necessary for growth from soil or water, before passing them on through the food chain - and ultimately back to the soil and water. 
    Global ecosystemVery large ecological areas on the earth’s surface (or biomes), with fauna and flora (animals and plants) adapting to their environment. Examples include tropical rainforest and hot desert. 
    ProducerAn organism or plant that is able to absorb energy from the sun through photosynthesis. 
    BiodiversityThe variety of life in the world or a particular habitat. 
    Commercial farmingFarming to sell produce for a profit to retailers or food processing companies. 
    DeforestationThe chopping down and removal of trees to clear an area of forest. 
    EcotourismResponsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the wellbeing of the local people, and may involve education. It is usually carried out in small groups and has minimal impact on the local ecosystem. 
    LoggingThe business of cutting down trees and transporting the logs to sawmills. 
    Mineral extractionThe removal of solid mineral resources from the earth. These resources include ores, which contain commercially valuable amounts of metals, such as iron and aluminium; precious stones, such as diamonds; building stones, such as granite.  
    Selective loggingThe cutting out of trees which are mature or inferior, to encourage the growth of the remaining trees in a forest or wood. 
    Soil erosionRemoval of topsoil faster than it can be replaced, due to natural (water and wind action), animal, and human activity. Topsoil is the top layer of soil and is the most fertile because it contains the most organic, nutrient-rich materials.  
    Subsistence farmingA type of agriculture producing food and materials for the benefit only of the farmer and his family. 
    SustainabilityActions and forms of progress that meet the needs of the present without reducing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. 
  • Living World - Ecosystems Part 2
    Appropriate technologyTechnology that is suited to the needs, skills, knowledge and wealth of local people in the environment in which they live. It usually combines simple ideas with cheap and readily available materials, especially for use in poorer countries. 
    Fragile environmentAn environment that is both easily disturbed and difficult to restore if disturbed. Plant communities in fragile areas have evolved in highly specialised ways to deal with challenging conditions. As a result, they cannot tolerate environmental changes. 
    InfrastructureThe basic equipment and structures (such as roads, utilities, water supply and sewage) that are needed for a country or region to function properly.  
    PermafrostPermanently frozen ground, found in polar and tundra regions. 
    PolarThe regions of Earth surrounding the North and South Poles. These regions are dominated by Earth's polar ice caps, the northern resting on the Arctic Ocean and the southern on the continent of Antarctica.  
    TundraThe flat, treeless Arctic regions of Europe, Asia and North America, where the ground is permanently frozen. Lichen, moss, grasses and dwarf shrubs can grow here. 
    Wilderness areaA natural environment that has not been significantly modified by human activity. Wilderness areas are the most intact, undisturbed areas left on Earth – places that humans do not control and have not developed. 

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