Key Words and Meanings - Year 9 Religion & Philosophy
  • Religion and Conflict
    ZakahA Muslim has to donate 2 and a half % of their wages each year to those in need. Muslims are encouraged to give more to charity.  
    Situation EthicsThis is based on the Christian idea of ‘agape’ (selfless love) All decisions are based on what is the most loving thing to do in a particular situation. 
    TzedakahTzedakah is the Hebrew word for the acts that we call charity in English.  
    SadaqahAny act of giving done out of compassion, love or generosity is called Sadaqah.  
    ForgivenessIs the intentional and voluntary process by which a victim undergoes a change in feelings and attitude regarding an offense, lets go of negative emotions such as vengefulness, with an increased ability to wish the offender well. 
    ConflictA serious disagreement or argument, typically a protracted one. 
    ReligionA particular system of faith and worship. 
    DangerThe possibility of suffering harm or injury. 
    EthicsMoral principles that govern a person's behaviour or the conducting of an activity. 
    Ethical decision-makingRefers to the process of evaluating and choosing among alternatives in a manner consistent with ethical principles. In making ethical decisions, it is necessary to perceive and eliminate unethical options and select the best ethical alternative.  
  • Religion and Matters of Death
    HospiceA hospice is a place where the dying are cared for. It gives pain relief and makes the terminally ill comfortable.  
    EuthanasiaMeans ‘a gentle death’. It’s also sometimes called ‘mercy killing’  
    Active Euthanasia Withholding treatment to deliberately end life, or giving a drug to end life.  
    Passive EuthanasiaWhere treatment is withheld or withdrawn because it’s just delaying the natural process of dying. Or increasing the dose of morphine to control pain, knowing that it will also shorten life. Some people say this isn’t euthanasia at all.  
    The Golden RuleThe Golden Rule is where Jesus said ‘do to others as you would do to yourself’.  
    Situation EthicsSuggests you should look at each situation individually before deciding what is the right action.  
  • Religion and Animal Ethics
    JustifyGive reasons for decision. 
    DangerousPuts things or people at risk of harm. 
    EvidenceInformation collected to back up a claim. 
    CauseThe reason for something. 
    BenefitA positive thing. 
    DetrimentAn action that hurts or damages. 
    DominionControl, or the exercise of control  
    StewardshipOne who manages another's property, finances, or other affairs.  
    VeganA person who does not eat any animal product, including eggs and cheese.  
    VegetarianA person who does not eat meat.  
  • Religion and Environmental Ethics
    CommunityA group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common. 
    DominionDominance or power over something; having charge of something or ruling over it  
    WonderMarvelling at the complexity and beauty of the universe  
    Responsibility A duty to care for, or having control over, something or someone  
    StewardshipThe idea that believers have a duty to look after the environment on behalf of God  
    AweA feeling of devout respect, mixed with fear or wonder  
    Global WarmingIs the increase of Earth's average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth.  
    PollutionThe presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects. 
  • Religion and Medical Ethics
    ConscienceA person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour. 
    AdvocateA person who publicly supports or recommends a particular cause or policy. 
    Blood Transfusions Someone’s blood replacement with donor blood of the same type, usually during an operation.  
    Transplant Surgery Replacing an organ with a donor organ. Transplants can include; heart, liver, kidney etc.  
    Xenotransplantation Modified organs from animals used in humans (new technology).  
    Cloning Asexual replica of one person using their cells.  
    Stem Cell Therapy Using stem cells from embryos to grow organs.  
    Embryology Scientific research into genetic diseases using spare or donated embryos younger than 14 days.  
    Therapeutic cloningTherapeutic cloning is legal, but strictly controlled. This means scientists can use stem cells etc. to create brain cells or skin, for example. It is considered medicine.  
    Saviour SiblingsSaviour Siblings are babies genetically altered to provide bone marrow or other tissues/organs for a sick sibling. Some say this is good as it saves lives, others are concerned the sibling will feel used. It is legal in the UK, but there are limits. 
    Designer babiesDesigner babies are babies where a baby’s genes can be altered to give them certain characteristics, such as blue eyes or higher IQs. The technology exists and involves changing certain genes before an embryo is conceived or develops.  
    Organ donationGiving organs to be used in transplant surgery  
  • Role Models
    GhandiMohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. 
    ConfrontationA hostile or argumentative situation or meeting between opposing parties. 
    MandelaNelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. 
    SegregationThe action or state of setting someone or something apart from others. 
    CivilRelating to ordinary citizens and their concerns, as distinct from military or ecclesiastical matters. 
    InfluenceThe capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself. 
    BoycottWithdraw from commercial or social relations with (a country, organization, or person) as a punishment or protest. 
    ProminentImportant; famous. 
    SeclusionThe state of being private and away from other people. 

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