Key Words and Meanings - Year 9 Computing
  • Spreadsheets
    AbstractionOnce we have recognised patterns in our problems, we use abstraction to gather the general characteristics and to filter out of the details we do not need in order to solve our problem. 
    GeneralisationGeneralisation is a way of quickly solving new problems based on previous problems we have solved. We can take an algorithm that solves some specific problem and adapt it so that it solves a whole class of similar problems. Then whenever we have to solve  
    Geometric ShapesMany two-dimensional geometric shapes can be defined by a set of points or vertices and lines connecting the points in a closed chain, as well as the resulting interior points. Such shapes are called polygons and include triangles, squares, and pentagons. 
    DecompositionDecomposition is one of the four cornerstones of Computer Science. It involves breaking down a complex problem or system into smaller parts that are more manageable and easier to understand. The smaller parts can then be examined and solved, or designed i 
    AlgorithmIn mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed. Algorithms perform calculation, data processing, and/or automated reasoning tasks. The words 'algorithm' and 'algorism' come from the nam 
    Co-ordinatesCoordinates are distances or angles, represented by numbers, that uniquely identify points on surfaces of two dimensions (2D) or in space of three dimensions ( 3D ). There are several coordinate schemes commonly used by mathematicians, scientists, and eng 
    IterationWhen designing programs, there may be some instructions that need repeating. This is known as iteration, and is implemented in programming using FOR and WHILE statements. 
    Graphical ProgrammingIn computing, a visual programming language (VPL) is any programming language that lets users create programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually. 
    Text Based Programming LanguageUsually used in reference to a computer application, a text-based application is one whose primary input and output are based on text rather than graphics or sound. 
    Block ProgrammingIn computer programming, a block or code block is a section of code which is grouped together. Blocks consist of one or more declarations and statements. A programming language that permits the creation of blocks, including blocks nested within other bloc 
  • Modern Computers
    Network 
    Protocol 
    Data Packet 
    Data Transmission 
    Deadlock 
    Network topologies 
    World Wide Web 
    Web Browser 
    Internet 
    Online 
    ISP 
    Domain name 
    Hyperlink 
    HTML 
    URL 
    IP Address 
    DNS 
    VoIP 
    Email 
    Streaming 
    TCP/IP 
    HTTP 
    MAC Address 
    Cloud 
    Cyber Attack 
    Hacking 
    Computer Misuse Act 
  • Number Systems
    Central Processing Unit (CPU)The part of a computer in which operations are controlled and executed. 
    Random Access Memory (RAM)RAM (pronounced ramm) is an acronym for random access memory, a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in compute 
    Read Only Memory (ROM)Once data has been written onto a ROM chip, it cannot be removed and can only be read. Unlike main memory (RAM), ROM retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. ROM is referred to as being non-volatile, whereas RAM is volatile. 
    StorageComputer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. The central processing unit (CPU) of a  
    ProcessorThe CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the part of a computer system that is commonly referred to as the "brains" of a computer. The CPU is also known as the processor or microprocessor. 
    SoftwareThe programs and other operating information used by a computer. 
    FunctionThe main functions of a computer are to receive, manipulate, display and store data. These basic functions are performed by commands that the computer receives either by a program or a human user. The commands that the computer receives are known as raw d 
    User InterfaceThe means by which the user and a computer system interact, in particular the use of input devices and software. 
    Word ProcessorsA program or machine for storing, manipulating, and formatting text entered from a keyboard and providing a printout. 
    NetworksA computer network is a set of computers connected together for the purpose of sharing resources. The most common resource shared today is connection to the Internet. Other shared resources can include a printer or a file server. 
  • Python Programming
    DecomposeDecomposition is one of the four cornerstones of Computer Science. It involves breaking down a complex problem or system into smaller parts that are more manageable and easier to understand. The smaller parts can then be examined and solved, or designed i 
    AlgorithmIn mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed. Algorithms perform calculation, data processing, and/or automated reasoning tasks. The words 'algorithm' and 'algorism' come from the nam 
    Computational ThinkingComputational Thinking (CT) is the thought processes involved in formulating a problem and expressing its solution(s) in such a way that a computer—human or machine—can effectively carry out. 
    DataData representing quantities, characters, or symbols on which operations are performed by a computer, stored and recorded on magnetic, optical, or mechanical recording media, and transmitted in the form of digital electrical signals. 
    InformationA computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Their ability of computers to follow a sequence of operations, called a program, make computers very flexible and useful. Such c 
    Pattern IdentificationOnce we have decomposed a complex problem, it helps to examine the small problems for similarities or ‘patterns’. These patterns can help us to solve complex problems more efficiently. 
    SelectionWhen designing algorithms, there are many steps where decisions must be made. This decision is known as selection, and can be displayed in pseudocode or flowcharts. 
    ModelComputers use maths, data and computer instructions to create representations of real-world events. They also can predict what’s happening — or what could happen — in complex situations, from climate systems to the spread of rumours throughout a town. And 
    AbstractionOnce we have recognised patterns in our problems, we use abstraction to gather the general characteristics and to filter out of the details we do not need in order to solve our problem. 
    GeneralisationGeneralisation is a way of quickly solving new problems based on previous problems we have solved. We can take an algorithm that solves some specific problem and adapt it so that it solves a whole class of similar problems. Then whenever we have to solve  
  • LMC
    InputIn computing, an input device is a peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance. Examples of input devices include keyboards, mou 
    OutputCommon output formats are printed paper, sound, video and on-screen documents. 
    AssignmentIn computer programming, an assignment statement sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name; in other words, it copies a value into the variable. In most imperative programming languages, the assignment stat 
    SelectionAlso called a decision, one of the three basic logic structures in computer programming. The other two logic structures are sequence and loop. In a selection structure, a question is asked, and depending on the answer, the program takes one of two courses 
    Nested SelectionIn computing science and informatics, nesting is where information is organised in layers, or where objects contain other similar objects. It almost always refers to self-similar or recursive structures in some sense. 
    IterationIteration is the act of repeating a process, either to generate an unbounded sequence of outcomes, or with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result. Each repetition of the process is also called an "iteration", and the results of one iterat 
    LoopingIn computer programming, a loop is a sequence of instruction s that is continually repeated until a certain condition is reached. Typically, a certain process is done, such as getting an item of data and changing it, and then some condition is checked suc 
    Logical OperatorsA logical operation or logical operators is another way of defining the Boolean operators: AND, OR, and NOT. See the Boolean definition for additional information and examples. 
    ValidationComputer system validation (sometimes called computer validation or CSV) is the process of documenting that a computer system meets a set of defined system requirements. Validation of computer systems to ensure accuracy, reliability, consistent intended p 
    VariableComputer programs use variables to store information. Variables could be used to store the score in a game, the number of cars in a car park or the cost of items on a till. They work in a similar way to algebra, where a letter in your code can stand for a 
  • Micro:Bit
    ClientA client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server. The server is often (but not always) on another computer system, in which case the client accesses the service by way of a network. 
    Web BrowserA web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier(URI/URL) and may be  
    ArtefactDigital artefact in information science, is any undesired or unintended alteration in data introduced in a digital process by an involved technique and/or technology. 
    NetworkA computer network is a set of computers connected together for the purpose of sharing resources. The most common resource shared today is connection to the Internet. Other shared resources can include a printer or a file server. 
    World Wide WebThe World Wide Web (WWW) is an open source information space where documents and other web resources are identified by URLs, interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet. The World Wide Web was invented by English scientist Tim Ber 
    Hyper Text Mark Up Language (HTHTML is a markup language for describing web documents (web pages). HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. A markup language is a set of markup tags. HTML documents are described by HTML tags. Each HTML tag describes different document content. 
    ProtocolA set of rules governing the format of data sent over the Internet or other network. 
    Search EngineA web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are generally presented in a line of results often referred to as search engine results pages(SERPs). 
    Boolean OperatorsBoolean Operators are simple words (AND, OR, NOT or AND NOT) used as conjunctions to combine or exclude keywords in a search, resulting in more focused and productive results. This should save time and effort by eliminating inappropriate hits that must be 
    WireframeWireframes are an important design tool used in Web development. It is a visualization tool for presenting proposed functions, structure and content of a Web page or Web site. A wireframe separates the graphic elements of a Web site from the functional el 
    AbstractionOnce we have recognised patterns in our problems, we use abstraction to gather the general characteristics and to filter out of the details we do not need in order to solve our problem. 
    GeneralisationGeneralisation is a way of quickly solving new problems based on previous problems we have solved. We can take an algorithm that solves some specific problem and adapt it so that it solves a whole class of similar problems. Then whenever we have to solve  
    Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a simple mechanism for adding style (e.g., fonts, colours, spacing) to Web documents. 
    GrammarIn formal language theory, a grammar (when the context is not given, often called a formal grammar for clarity) is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language. The rules describe how to form strings from the language's alphabet that are val 
    SyntaxIn computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language. 
    VerificationVerification is performed to ensure that the data entered exactly matches the original source. 
    ValidValidation is an automatic computer check to ensure that the data entered is sensible and reasonable. It does not check the accuracy of data. 
    iframeInline FRAME. An HTML structure that allows another HTML document to be inserted into an HTML page. The iFrame is set up as a window frame of a specified size that scrolls along with the rest of the page, but the iFrame's content can itself be scrolled if 

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