Key Words and Meanings - Year 9 Physical Education
  • Gymnastics
    VaultingLeaping upward or over something. 
    TrajectoryThe path of something moving through space or the air. 
    SquatCrouch or sit with one's knees bent and one's heels close to or touching one's buttocks or the back of one's thighs. 
    StraddleAn act of sitting or standing with one's legs wide apart. 
    PikeA gymnastics body position used in jumps and saltos with the body bent forward at the waist with the legs kept straight. 
    RoutineIn gymnastics, a routine is combination of skill elements on one apparatus or event. The number and difficulty of skills depends on the competition format, and skill level of the competitors. 
    CounterbalanceA weight that balances another. 
    ParallelSide by side, having the same distance between two things continuously; occurring or existing at the same time in a similar way. 
    PerpendicularAt an angle of 90° to a given line, plane, or surface or to the ground. 
    SpringboardA strong, flexible board from which someone may jump in order to gain added impetus when performing a dive or a gymnastic movement. 
  • Rugby
    OverloadFitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do. You must work hard. 
    IntensityHow hard to train. 
    CardiovascularRelated to the heart and veins. Cardiovascular fitness is the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time and is sometimes called stamina. 
    EnduranceMuscular endurance is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired. It helps sportspeople to sprint or repeat quick actions for longer. 
    MuscularRelating to the muscles. 
    CoordinationLinking actions smoothly in the correct order. 
    ThresholdThe level at which you can train without injuring or hurting yourself. Level of endurance. 
    AnalysisMatch analysis sheets are factual data which provide an overview of a full performance on all skills, is a permanent record of performance, and allows you to identify weaknesses in your performance. Analysis means a breakdown of how something works. 
    ObservationTo watch someone or something closely for specific things. The observation schedule is broken down into 3 parts – Preparation, Action and Recovery. Observation schedules allow more focussed analysis of skills and compares your performance to that of a mod 
    VaultingLeaping upward or over something. 
  • Invasion
    AnalysisMatch analysis sheets identify all shots (or movements) and their effectiveness in a full performance situation. They can provide statistics and percentages on aspects of your performance and begin to identify strengths and weaknesses. Information is vali 
    PreparationThe act of getting ready for something. 
    EvaluationLooking at the positives and negatives of a performance. 
    KorfballKorfball (Dutch: Korfbal) is a ball sport, with similarities to netball and basketball. It is played by two teams of eight players with either eight females in each team or with four females and four males in each team. The objective is to throw a ball th 
    ContactWhen tow things or people meet and touch each other. 
    DisciplineA branch of knowledge or expertise; to train someone to obey rules or behaviours. 
    OfficialsA person holding public office or having official duties, especially as a representative of an organisation. 
    OfficiatingOverseeing something; act as an official in charge of something, especially a sporting event. 
    PenaltyA disadvantage (as loss of yardage, time, or possession of the ball or an addition to or subtraction from the score) imposed on a team or competitor for violation of the rules of a sport. 
    VisionBeing able to see; planning for the future. 
  • Athletics
    PacingMove or develop (something) at a particular rate or speed. 
    Pace makerSomeone who is present to set a standard speed. 
    Middle distanceDenoting or relating to a race distance of between 800 and 5,000 metres. 
    Long distanceDenoting or relating to a race distance of 6 miles or 10,000 metres (6 miles 376 yds), or longer. 
    Muscle fibresA cylindrical, multinucleate cell composed of numerous myofibrils that contracts when stimulated. 
    Slow twitch(of a muscle fibre) contracting slowly, providing endurance rather than strength. 
    Fast twitch(of a muscle fibre) contracting rapidly, thus providing strength rather than endurance. 
    FatigueExtreme tiredness resulting from mental or physical exertion or illness. 
    Lactic acidA colourless syrupy organic acid formed in sour milk, and produced in the muscle tissues during strenuous exercise. 
    QualificationA quality, accomplishment, etc., that fits a person for some function, sport, or the like. 
  • Striking and Fielding
    SendingCause to go or be taken to a particular destination or in a particular direction. 
    ReceivingBeing passed the ball by a teammate; taking possession. 
    BaseA check point; a starting point e.g. first base 
    DistanceThe amount of space between one thing and another. 
    UmpireA person who controls play and makes sure that players act according to the rules in a sports event (such as a baseball game or a cricket or tennis match) 
    PreparationThe act of getting ready for something. 
    ExecutionTo carry out; to accomplish something. 
    RecoveryImproving; getting better. Can be applied to a sport/game e.g. the team made a recovery or an individual he made a recovery after an injury meant he was out of play. 
    TimingThe control of speed e.g. of a strike or blow in sport. 
    Decision MakingChoosing a definitive course of action. 
  • Health Related Exercise
    Fitness programmeA plan to help someone improve their health and physical condition. 
    SkeletalRelating to the bones and skeleton. 
    MusclesA band or bundle of fibrous tissue in a human or animal body that has the ability to contract, producing movement in or maintaining the position of parts of the body. 
    VoluntaryDone, given, or acting of one's own free will. 
    InvoluntaryAutomatic response; done despite one's own free will. 
    HamstringAny of five tendons at the back of a person's knee. 
    QuadricepsThe large muscle at the front of the thigh, which is divided into four distinct portions and acts to extend the leg. 
    GastrocnemiusThe chief muscle of the calf of the leg, which flexes the knee and foot. It runs to the Achilles tendon from two heads attached to the femur. 
    Latissimus DorsiEither of a pair of large, roughly triangular muscles covering the lower part of the back, extending from the sacral, lumbar, and lower thoracic vertebrae to the armpits. 
    AbdominalsA large group of muscles in the front of the abdomen that assists in the regular breathing movement and supports the muscles of the spine while lifting and keeping abdominal organs such as the intestines in place. Abdominal muscles play a key role in exer 

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