Key Words and Meanings - Year 9 History
  • Women, War and Suffrage
    WarWhen two or more opposing countries fight using military means (combat). 
    RightsYour ability to legally do something/an action eg right to vote.  
    Gender equality The equality of both males and females in their roles in society eg, work, pay, vote.  
    Violent protestTo oppose something using violence as a means to gain attention for your cause.  
    HousecarlsHighly trained troops who were a constant body guard to their Lord and travelled with him wherever he went. 
    FactoryA place where items are mass produced, for example bullets.  
    MunitionsItems of weaponry eg bullets or rifles (guns). 
    SuffrageThe right o vote in political elections.  
    Peaceful ProtestWhen opposition to something is displayed peacefully. For example, carrying out a petition or marches.  
    ReformTo change/amend with the intention of improving. 
  • World War Two and the Home Front
    Warwhen two countries have military conflict that leads to armies fighting.  
    BlitzThe mass bombings of areas in Britain led by the Luftwaffe (German air force).  
    Home Frontthe civilian population and activities of a nation whose armed forces are engaged in war abroad. 
    Allied PowersAn alliance during World War II made up of the countries that opposed the aggression of Nazi Germany. Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union were the most prominent members, although many other countries also joined. 
    AnschlussChancellor Adolf Hitler’s doctrine of German political union with Austria, which effectively enabled Germany to annex that nation in March 1938. 
    AppeasementThe British and French policy of conceding to Adolf Hitler’s territorial demands prior to the outbreak of World War II. Associated primarily with British prime minister Neville Chamberlain, the appeasement policy enabled Hitler to systematically take over 
    Battle of Britain An extended campaign from July 1940 to the spring of 1941 in which British Air Forces fought off of German bombers and denied Germany in its quest to attain air superiority over Britain. Although major cities in England sustained heavy damages.  
    BlitzkreigLiterally “lightning war,” the term for Hitler’s invasion strategy of attacking a nation suddenly and with overwhelming force. 
    D-DayJune 6, 1944, the day on which the Allied invasion of France via the Normandy coast began. 
    LuftwaffeThe German air force, which was used heavily in campaigns such as the Battle Of Britain in 1940. 
    Operation BarbarossaThe code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, which Hitler predicted would take only six months but ended up miring the German armies for more than two years. 
    V-E DayMay 8, 1945, the day on which the Allied forces declared victory in Europe. 
  • The Holocaust
    Einsatzgruppen German name for the SS killing squads. They rounded up Jews and other “inferior people” in the conquered territories, forced their victims to dig their own graves, into which they were shot and left. At least one million Jews were killed by them. 
    BystanderOne who is present at an event or who knows about its occurrence and chooses to ignore it. That is, he or she neither participates in, nor responds to it.  
    AuschwitzUsually refers to Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest Nazi concentration camp, located 37 miles west of Kracow, Poland. Established in 1940, it became a huge camp complex that included a killing centre and slave labor camps.  
    DehumanisationDehumanisation reduces the target group to objects therefore no longer human and worthy of human rights or dignity. This was done by identifying people by numbers. 
    AryanNazis used it to mean “superior race,” described as white, tall, athletic, with blond hair and blue eyes. 
    AntisemitismPrejudice towards, or discrimination against, Jews.  
    Death CampsAlso called “extermination camps,” these were concentration camps created for the sole purpose of killing people. Victims were murdered in assembly-line fashion oftentimes in gas chambers, and their bodies burned in open fields or crematorium.  
    ConflictA serious disagreement or argument, typically a protracted one. 
    Final Solution Euphemism adopted at Wannsee Conference (January 1942), refers to “the final solution to the Jewish question in Europe.” This was the Nazi code for the murder of all European Jews. 
    GestapoThe Nazi Secret State Police, who had absolute power and could arrest without a warrant.  
    Wannsee ConferenceA gathering of top Nazi officials held on January 20, 1942 at Lake Wannsee (vahn zey) in Berlin where “The Final Solution” and other steps were approved which would lead to the total annihilation of European Jews. 
    SwastikaAn ancient Eastern symbol adopted by the Nazis as their emblem.  
    Totalitarianism A government or doctrine in which one political party or political group maintains complete control of a population even to the intimate, private details of an individual’s life such as one’s friendships 
    Third Reich “Reich” is German for “empire.” The Third Reich is the official name of the Nazi regime.  
    Survivor One who experienced a devastating event, like the Holocaust, and lived. 
  • Elizabeth Unit 1: Queen, Government and Religion 1558-69
    SacramentsSpecial Church ceremonies. 
    Queen regnant'Regnant' is a Latin word and means reigning. Elizabeth was a queen 'regnant' because she ruled in her own right, like her sister, Mary.  
    ClergyReligious leaders, such as bishops and priests.  
    CrownWith a capital 'C', the Crown refers to the monarch and their government. 
    Divine Right The belief that monarchs were chosen by God to rule. 
    Succession The issue of who was going to succeed the throne after the existing monarch died.  
    The ReformationA challenge to the teachings and power of the Roman Catholic church. This movement is said to have begun in Europe in 1517 and be supported by Henry VIII (Elizabeth's father).  
    Roman CatholicThe form of Christianity followed throughout the whole of Western Europe until the 16th Century. A feature includes allegiance to the Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. 
    PatronSomeone who gives encouragement or financial support to an individual or a cause. For example, Elizabeth I was a patron of many explorers during her reign. She funded their voyages and publicly praised their efforts.  
    Holy Communion Another name for mass, often used in Protestant churches.  
    MassRoman Catholic service at which Catholics are given bread and wine. Catholics believe that this involves a miracle: the bread and wine is turned in to the body and blood of Christ. 
    DioceseAn area looked after by a bishop. 
    German StatesGermany did not exist in the 16th century. There are, however, many (usually small) states where German was spoken but they were independent of each other. These states formed part of the Holy Roman Empire. 
    AltersThe table in a church where mass is performed.  
    Royal Supremacy This is when the monarch is the head of the church. 
    PapacyThe system of church government ruled by the pope.  
    HereticsPeople who have controversial opinions and beliefs at odds with those held by the rest of society, but especially those who deny the teachings of the Catholic church. 
    MartyrSomeone who is killed for his or her beliefs, especially religious beliefs.  
    Excommunicated A very severe punishment, imposed by the pope, expelling people from the Catholic Church. 
    AbdicateA king or queen giving up their throne.  
  • Elizabeth Unit 2: Challenges to Elizabeth at Home and Abroad 1569-88
    TreatyA formally concluded and ratified agreement between states. 
    ConflictA serious disagreement or argument, typically a protracted one. 
    Foreign policy The aims and objectives that guide a nation's relations with other countries. The general aim is to benefit the nation. These can includes aims for; trade, expanding in to more territory and/or gaining more economic resources and building alliances.  
    Civil WarA war between people of the same country. 
    Hanged, Drawn and QuarteredA type of punishment used when the accused was found guilty of high treason. The accused would be hanged until near dead, dragged by horse and then cut open with their intestines removed until finally chopped in to four pieces. 
    ConspiracyA secret plan with the aim of doing something against the law.  
    Agents ProvocateursA french term referring to agents who become a part of groups suspected of wrongdoing, and encourage other members to break the law so that potential threats can be identified and arrested.  
    CipherA secret way of writing in code.  
    Council of the northThe council of the north was used to implement Elizabeth's laws and authority in the north of England, as it was far from London and Elizabeth's reach. The North was sometimes unstable and often under threat from Scottish raids.  
    Papal BullA written order issued by the Pope.  
    New WorldNorth and South America. Europeans were only aware of their existence from 1492.  
    Privateer Individuals (usually merchants or explorers) with their own armed ships that capture other ships for their cargoes, often with the authorisation or support of their government.  
    CircumnavigateTo travel all the way around the world. 
    Sacking In the Elizabethan period, this was a term used to rob a town or city using violence, causing a lot of damage, usually in wartime.  
    MercenaryA soldier who fights for money rather than a nation or cause.  
    FireshipsEmpty ships set on fire and sent in the direction of the enemy to cause damage and confusion.  
    PropagandaBiased information used to promote a point of view.  
  • Elizabeth Unit 3: Elizabethan Society in the Age of Exploration, 1558-88
    Subsistence farming Growing just enough crops to feed the family but not to sell.  
    ApprenticeSomeone learning a skill or trade in Elizabethan times. They were not paid, in fact it cost money to be an apprentice. Once qualified, skilled craftsmen could earn a good living.  
    VagabondsVagabonds or vagrants were homeless people without jobs who roamed the countryside begging for money, perhaps stealing or committing other crimes in order to survive.  
    RhetoricThe art of public speaking and persuasion.  
    Arable farming Growing crops on farmland.  
    Social MobilityThe ability to be able to change your social position in society. 
    Rural population When the population of the countryside falls as people move away in search of a better life.  
    ColoniesLands under the control or influence of another country, occupied by settlers from that country.  
    QuadrantSimilar to an astrolabe, it was used by sailors to help with navigation at sea. It was the size of a quarter circle.  
    Economic recession When a fall in demand leads to falling prices and businesses losing money. This can lead to businesses failing and unemployment rising. 
    MonopolyWhen one person, or one company, controls the supply of something. This means they can charge whatever price they like for something.  
    BarterExchanging goods for other goods, instead of paying for something outright.