Key Words and Meanings - Year 7 Geography
  • Introduction to Geography and Map Skills
    Grid referenceA map reference indicating a location in terms of a series of vertical and horizontal grid lines identified by numbers or letters. 
    SymbolA character, letter, or similar graphic representation used on a map to indicate some object, characteristic, and so on. 
    ReliefA map indicating hills and valleys by shading rather than by contour lines alone. 
    Contour linesA line on a map joining points of equal elevation above a given level, usually mean sea level. 
    PatternsA spatial pattern is a noticeable structure, placement, or arrangement of objects on Earth. It also includes the space in between those objects. Patterns may be recognized because of their arrangement; maybe in a line or by a clustering of points. 
    Physical GeographyThe branch of geography dealing with natural features. 
    Human GeographyThe branch of geography dealing with how human activity affects or is influenced by the earth's surface. 
    Map SkillsThe skills needed to read maps. 
    DiagramTo represent something in graphic form. 
    HeightHow tall an object is. 
    ScaleMap scale refers to the relationship (or ratio) between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground. For example, on a 1:100000 scale map, 1cm on the map equals 1km on the ground. 
  • Where do we live?
    SettlementsSettlement geography is a branch of geography that investigates the earth's surface's part settled by humans. According to the United Nations 'Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements (1976), "human settlements means the totality of the human community  
    OrganisationOrdering people, objects or things into categories that make sense to people. 
    RedevelopmentTo develop something for a second time (or more) in order to improve it. 
    SustainableMeeting the needs of today with out compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.  
    ExploredTravel through an area in order to discover it; consider new information. 
    DesignA plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of a building, garment, or other object before it is made. 
    FutureTime to come. 
    OrderedArranged something in a methodical way. 
    LandscapeAll the visible features of an area of land, often considered in terms of their aesthetic appeal. 
    RuralRelating to the countryside rather than the town. 
    HeirarchyA system in which things are ranked according to relative status or authority. 
    LinearArranged along a straight line. 
    Inner CityThe area near the centre of a city, especially when associated with social and economic problems. 
    SiteAn area of ground on which a town, building, or monument is constructed. 
    SituationThe location and surroundings of a place. 
    HamletA small settlement, generally one smaller than a village, and strictly (in Britain) one without a church. 
    VillageA group of houses and associated buildings, larger than a hamlet and smaller than a town, situated in a rural area. 
    TownA built-up area that is larger than a village and generally smaller than a city. 
    ConurbationAn extended urban area, typically consisting of several towns merging with the suburbs of a central city. 
    NucleatedWhen located around a central area.  
    DispersedDistribute or spread over a wide area. 
    Land UseThe type of activity the land is being used for. For example, residential, commercial or transport. 
    Central Business District (CBD)The commercial, office, retail, transportation, and cultural center of the city.  
    ResidentialLand use which is used for people to live in.  
    Rural-urban fringeThe area found at the edge of a town, where it meets the countryside.  
    UrbanA built-up area.  
    Greenfield siteUndeveloped areas of green land found in cities and the countryside.  
    Brownfield sitePreviously developed land which is not currently in use.  
    RegenerationThe act of updating and re-developing an area to make it suitable for modern use.  
    UrbanisationThe process where an increased proportion of a population live in cities.  
  • Welcome to the UK
    United KingdomThe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 
    Great BritainGreat Britain is not a country; it’s a landmass. It is known as ‘Great’ because it is the largest island in the British Isles, and houses the countries of England, Scotland and Wales within its shores. 
    British IslesThe British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and over six thousand smaller isles. 
    PopulationA population is a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. 
    RegionIn geography, regions are areas broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). 
    WeatherThe state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time as regards heat, cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc. 
    Economic ActivityThe production, distribution, and consumption of goods. 
    ImmigrantA person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country. 
    Population DensityThe number of people in certain spaces and land mass areas. 
    IndustryEconomic activity concerned with the processing of raw materials and manufacture of goods in factories. 
    UrbanA built-up area.  
    RiverA large natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another river. 
    UplandsAn area of high or hilly lands. 
    CityA large settlement.  
    CountyA smaller division of land within a country.  
    MigrationThe movement of people from one place to another.  
    Push factorA reason to leave a certain place. 
    Pull factorA positive thing about a certain place that causes people to move there.  
    RefugeeA person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster, and who has been granted permission to live in a country.  
    Asylum seekerA person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster, but whom has not been granted permission to live in a country. 
  • Rivers
    River ProcessesHow a river shapes and changes the landscape. River processes are erosion, deposition and transportation. 
    River landformsA feature that is made by a river e.g. a waterfall, an ox-bow lake, a meander, v-shaped valleys 
    ErosionTaking away or wearing down of land. 
    DepositionWhen material carried by a river is dropped or put somewhere. 
    TransportationThe movement of material (sand, soil, rocks) by a river. 
    WaterfallA river landform created by erosion. Hard rock lies on top of soft rock. 
    MeanderA bend in a river caused by erosion on the outside and deposition on the inside of the bend. 
    FloodingWhen the capacity of a river is exceeded and water flows of the river bank. 
    Flood defencesHard-engineering and soft-engineering approaches to managing floods. 
    SourceThe beginning of a river.  
    GroundwaterWater found in the ground. 
    FloodplainAn area of flat land found either side of a river that is likely to flood if the river bursts its banks.  
    ConfluenceThe point where a tributary joins a river.  
    TributaryA stream or river that joins another river. 
    Ox-bow lakeA lake created when a meander is cut off from the main river. 
    MouthThe place where a river meets the sea. 
    DeltaAn area at the mouth of the river when the river meets the sea and small islands are created as the water slows down and deposits material. 
    Hydraulic actionThe force of the river against the banks can cause air to be trapped in cracks and crevices. The pressure weakens the banks and gradually wears it away. 
    AbrasionThe process by which rocks that are carried along by the river wear down the river bed and banks.  
    AttritionThe process whereby the rocks being carried by the river smash together and break into smaller, smoother and rounder particles. 
    SolutionThe process where soluble particles are dissolved into the river. 
    TransportationThe process of a river carrying materials and sediment. 
    SolutionThe transport process where minerals are dissolved into the water and carried along in solution. 
    SuspensionThe transportation process whereby fine, light material is carried along in the water. 
    SaltationThe transportation process by which small pebbles and stones are bounced along the river bed. 
    TractionThe transportation process by which large boulders and rocks are rolled along the river bed. 
    AfforestationA flood defense strategy that involves planting trees to take up excess water. 
    EmbankmentA flood defense strategy where earth is put alongside a river to protect the land around it. This increases the height of the river and lowers the chance of flooding. 
    DamA flood defense strategy whereby a large wall is put across the river to control water flow. 
    River straighteningA river defense strategy when a new channel is made so that the water can flow faster. 
    Water cycleThe cycle of processes by which water circulates between the earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land, involving precipitation as rain and snow, drainage in streams and rivers, and return to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. 
    InterceptionWhen water is stopped from reaching the main river channel by leaves, branches of plants and the forest floor. 
    TranspirationThe process by which water leaves plants.  
    EvapourationThe process where water turns from liquid to gas. 
    CondensationThe process by which water turns from a gas to a liquid. 
    ValleyA low area of land between hills or mountains, typically with a river or stream flowing through it.  
    DepositWhen material and sediment is left behind.  
    VelocityThe speed of something that has direction.  
    EstuaryThe mouth of a river, where the sea tide meets the stream. 
    SedimentThe material carried by a river (rocks, sand, stones).  
    V-shaped valleyA steep sided valley formed by the erosion of a river, named because of its V shape. 
    RapidsA fast-flowing and turbulent part of the course of a river. 
    GorgeA narrow valley between hills or mountains, typically with steep rocky walls, formed as a waterfall retreats upstream. 
  • Natural Hazards 1 (Volcanoes)
    PlatesThe Earth's surface is broken into large pieces, like a cracked eggshell; the pieces are called plates. 
    Active volcanoA volcano that has erupted recently and is likely to do so again 
    Convection currentA current of warmer material; when air or water or soft rock is heated from below, the warmer materials rises in convection currents. 
    Dormant volcanoA 'sleeping' volcano; it has not erupted for years, but may emit gas now and then. 
    EarthquakeThe shaking of the Earth's crust caused by rock movement. 
    LavaMelted rock that erupts from a volcano. 
    MagmaMelted rock below the Earth's surface; when it reaches the Earth's surface it is called lava. 
    MantleThe middle layer of the Earth, between the crust and core. 
    Pyroclastic FlowA flood of gas, dust, ash and lava rushing down the side of a volcano, after an eruption. 
    Ring of fireThe ring of volcanoes and earthquakes around the Pacific Ocean. 
    Seismometer An instrument for recording the vibrations during an earthquake 
    Natural hazardAn event that happens naturally on Earth that poses a threat to human activity. 
    CrustThe Earth's hard, outer layer. 
    MantleThe part of the Earth between the core and the crust which is made up of magma and rock. 
    CoreThe central part of the Earth.  
    PangeaA super-continent that previously existed on the Earth, where all modern continents were joined as the same land mass. 
    Plate tectonicsThe movement of large plates across the Earth's surface. 
    Conservative plate marginOccurs where plates slide past each other in opposite directions, or in the same direction but at different speeds. 
    Collision plate marginWhere two plates are moving towards each other. 
    Destructive plate marginWhere two plates are moving towards each other and one plate sinks under the other.  
    Constructive plate marginWhere two plates are moving away from each other and new crust is being formed. 
    FocusThe place in the Earth where an earthquake originates. 
    EpicentreThe place immediately above the focus of an earthquake on the Earth's surface. 
    Richter scaleA logarithmic scale used to measure earthquakes. 
    EarthquakeA sudden, violent shaking of the ground as a result of movements within the Earth. 
    Plate marginThe edge of large tectonic plates, often where earthquakes occur and volcanoes are located. 
    Tsunami"Large wave" in Japanese: a long, high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance. 
  • Energy and sustainable living
    Fossil fuelsCoal, oil and natural gas; called fossil fuels because they are the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. 
    FuelSomething we use to provide energy; we usually have to burn a fuel to release its energy (except for nuclear fuel). 
    Global WarmingThe way temperatures around the world are rising 
    Greenhouse gasesGases like carbon dioxide and methane that trap heat around the Earth, giving global warming. 
    HydroelectricityElectricity generated when a river spins a turbine 
    National GridThe network of power stations and cables that supply our electricity. 
    Nuclear FuelA substance with unstable atoms that break down, giving out a large amount of energy. 
    Solar PowerPower we get by using sunlight as a fuel. 
    SustainableCan be carried on without doing any harm. 
    RenewableSomething that can be used again and again. 
    Non-renewableSomething that can only be used once. 
    Wind EnergyEnergy generated by the power of the wind, for example wind turbines. 
    FiniteWhen there is only a certain amount of something.