Key Words and Meanings - Year 8 Geography
  • Russia
    Economic activityWork you earn money from 
    Greenfield siteA site which has not been build on before. 
    InfrastructureThe basic services in a country. Such as roads, railways, water supply, telephone systems. 
    Primary industryIndustry, such as mining, agriculture, or forestry, that is concerned with obtaining or providing natural raw materials for conversion into commodities and products for the consumer. 
    Secondary industryIndustry that converts the raw materials provided by primary industry into commodities and products for the consumer; manufacturing industry. 
    Tertiary industryThe part of a country's economy concerned with the provision of services, e.g. teacher, bus driver, cleaner. 
    Quaternary industryThe sector of industry that involves the intellectual services: research, development, and IT.  
    TNC, Trans National CorporationA company that operates in more than one country.  
    Supply chainThe sequence of processes involved in the production and distribution of a commodity. 
  • Development
    DevelopmentThe Level of economic growth and wealth of a country. It is about the standard of living in a country.  
    PovertyThe state of being extremely poor. 
    HyperinflationMonetary inflation occurring at a very high rate; hyperinflation is a situation where the price increases are so out of control that the concept of inflation is meaningless. 
    DeficitOwing money. 
    Economic DevelopmentBuilding business, trade and cash flow. 
    TaxA sum of money demanded by a government for its support or for specific facilities or services, levied upon incomes, property, sales, etc. 
    FamineA lack of food; a situation where people may starve. 
    MedicationMedicine and drugs used to treat illness. 
    Global CitizenshipA global citizen is someone who identifies with being part of an emerging world community and whose actions contribute to building this community's values and practices. 
    Birth rateBirth Rate is the number of births per 1000 people in a country.  
    Death rateDeath Rate is the number of deaths per year per 1000 people in a country. 
    Infant mortalityInfant mortality is the number of deaths per infant under 1 year. 
    Life expectancyThe number of years the average person lives. 
    GNP per capitaGross National Product - the average amount of money earned per person in a country. 
    Adult literacyThe percentage of adults in the country who can read and write.  
    LICLow income country. 
    HICHigh income country. 
    NEENewly Emerging Economy. 
    GDPGross Domestic Product - the amount of economic output of a country. 
    Squatter settlementSquatter settlements are any collection of buildings where the people have no legal rights to the land they are built upon.  
    DebtMoney that is owed. 
  • Africa
    CountryHumans have divided continents into political units called countries. 
    ContinentOne of Earth's great land masses; there are 7 continents. 
    DesertificationWhere land is being turned into desert, often through overuse. 
    DroughtThere is less rain that usual, so there is not enough water for our needs. 
    Life expectancyHow many years a new baby can expect to live for, on average. 
    PopulationThe number of people living in a place. 
    SavannaAn area of grassy plains with scattered trees. 
    StereotypeA fixed opinion or impression of someone or somewhere that does not reflect reality. 
    Urban areaA built-up area - town or city 
    Over-grazingWhen animals eat all the plants and they can’t grow back.  
    Over-cultivatingThe excessive use of farmland which means crops can no longer grow and soil is lost through wind and water erosion.  
    DeforestationWhen trees are chopped down to use the land for different uses. 
    IrrigationTo supply the land with water by artificial means e.g. by diverting streams, flooding, or spraying.  
    FertileLand that is capable of producing abundant vegetation or crops. 
    CorruptionDishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery. 
    Squatter settlementSquatter settlements are any collection of buildings where the people have no legal rights to the land they are built upon. The people are living there illegally and do not own the land.  
    ClimateThe weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period. 
    Convectional rainWhen the land warms up, it heats the air above it. This causes the air to expand and rise. As the air rises it cools and condenses. If this process continues then rain will fall. 
    Inter tropical convergence zoneThe area where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge. It encircles Earth near the thermal equator, though its specific position varies seasonally.  
    Atmospheric circulationAtmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and together with ocean circulation is the means by which thermal energy is redistributed on the surface of the Earth. 
    Climate graphA climate graph displays yearly temperature and precipitation statistics for a particular location. 
    BiomeA large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, e.g. forest or tundra. 
    PovertyThe state of being extremely poor. 
    WealthThe amount of money a person or country has.  
    ConflictA disagreement.  
    Informal sectorThe informal sector of the economy, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government. 
  • Coasts
    Longshore DriftsLongshore drift consists of the transportation of sediments (clay, silt, sand and shingle) along a coast at an angle to the shoreline, which is dependent on prevailing wind direction, swash and backwash. 
    TidesThe alternate rising and falling of the sea, usually twice in each lunar day at a particular place, due to the attraction of the moon and sun. 
    Coastal ErosionCoast erosion is the process of wearing away material from the coastal profile due to imbalance in the supply and export of material from a certain section. It takes place in the form of scouring in the foot of the cliffs or in the foot of the dunes. 
    DepositDeposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass. Wind, ice, and water, as well as sediment flowing via gravity, transport previously eroded sediment, which, at the loss of enough kinetic energy  
    TransportThe method of getting from one place to another. 
    Wavecut PlatformPlatforms of rock created by waves cutting away at the cliffs, leaving just a rock surface at beach level. 
    HeadlandHeadlands are formed when the sea attacks a section of coast with alternating bands of hard and soft rock. The bands of soft rock, such as sand and clay, erode more quickly than those of more resistant rock, such as chalk. This leaves a section of land ju 
    StackA stack or seastack is a geological landform consisting of a steep and often vertical column or columns of rock in the sea near a coast, formed by wave erosion. 
    StumpWhen the cave wears through the headland, an arch forms. Further erosion causes the arch to collapse, leaving the pillar of hard rock standing away from the coast—the stack. Eventually, erosion will cause the stack to collapse, leaving a stump. 
    SpitA spit is an extended stretch of beach material that projects out to sea and is joined to the mainland at one end. Spits are formed where the prevailing wind blows at an angle to the coastline, resulting in longshore drift. 
    Chemical weatheringThe breakdown of rock by chemical action. For example, weak acid attacking the rocks.  
    Biological weatheringThis involves living things like burrowing animals and plants attacking rocks and weakening their structures.  
    Freeze-thaw weatheringThis is the physical breakdown of rocks. Where water enters cracks, freezes (often overnight), expands and puts pressure on the crack making it weaker.  
    Hydraulic actionForce of the waves. As waves crash against the cliff face, the force of the breaking wave can squeeze air in cracks. This air gradually forces open the crack in the rock - as this process continues, the rock becomes increasingly weakened. 
    AbrasionBits of rock and sand in waves grind down cliff surfaces like sandpaper. 
    AttritionWaves smash rocks and pebbles on the shore into each other, and they break and become smoother. 
    Rock armourLarge boulders piled at the bottom of a cliff or sea wall. They absorb the energy of the waves before it crashes onto the cliff.  
    GroynesStructures placed at right angles to the beach which trap sand. They trap the sand and stop the sand being washed away. They need to be replaced when they are covered by sand and pebbles.  
    GabionsSteel mesh cages filled with boulders to absorb wave energy. 
    Sea wallConcrete wall built to protect towns and important roads.  
    ErosionThe wearing away of something. 
    Prevailing windsA wind from the direction that is predominant or most usual. 
    Destructive waveThe characteristics of a destructive wave are: weak swash and strong backwash, the strong backwash removes sediment from the beach and the waves are steep and close together. 
    Constructive waveThe characteristics of a constructive wave are: strong swash and weak backwash, the strong swash brings sediments to build up the beach and the backwash is not strong enough to remove the sediment and the waves are low and further apart. 
    BayAn inlet of the sea where the land curves inwards. 
    Resistant rockRock that is not eroded easily.  
    Coastal defencesStrategies put in place to protect the land from the erosion of the sea. 
    FetchThe distance travelled by wind or waves across open water. 
  • Weather and Climate
    TemperatureThe degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. 
    PrecipitationRainfall 
    Air PressureThe definition of air pressure is the force exerted onto a surface by the weight of the air. 
    Wind SpeedWind speed is the measure motion of the air with respect to the surface of the earth covering a unit distance over a unit time. 
    Wind DirectionWind direction is an indicator of the direction that the wind is coming from. 
    High PressureA condition of the atmosphere in which the pressure is above average (e.g. in an anticyclone). 
    Low PressureA condition of the atmosphere in which the pressure is below average (e.g. in a depression). 
    VisibilityThe distance one can see as determined by light and weather conditions. 
    Warm FrontThe boundary of an advancing mass of warm air, in particular the leading edge of the warm sector of a low-pressure system. 
    Cold FrontThe boundary of an advancing mass of cold air, in particular the trailing edge of the warm sector of a low-pressure system. 
    WeatherDescribes the day-to-day conditions of the atmosphere. Weather can change quickly - one day it can be dry and sunny and the next day it may rain. 
    ClimateDescribes average weather conditions over longer periods and over large areas. 
    AnticycloneA high pressure weather system. 
    DepressionA low pressure weather system. 
    Synoptic symbolsUsed on weather charts to describe the weather conditions. 
    OktasThe unit of measurement for cloud cover. 
    MicroclimateThe climate of a very small area, especially when this differs from the climate of the surrounding area. 
    Convectional rainfallWhen the land warms up, it heats the air above it. This causes the air to expand and rise. As the air rises it cools and condenses. If this process continues then rain will fall. 
    Relief rainfallRelief rain is formed when air is forced to cool when it rises over relief features in the landscape such as hills or mountains. As it rises it cools, condenses and forms rain. 
    Frontal rainThe type of rainfall that takes place at the boundary between a mass of warm air and a mass of cold air. 
    Tropical stormA localized, very intense low-pressure wind system, forming over tropical oceans and with winds of hurricane force. 
  • Global Warming and Climate Change and Climate Change
    EnergyPower derived from the utilisation of physical or chemical resources, especially to provide light and heat or to work machines. 
    Fossil fuelsA natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms. 
    Renewable energyEnergy from a source that is not depleted when used, such as wind or solar power. 
    Non renewable energyEnergy that depleted when used such as gas power. 
    Solar powerEnergy created from the sun's heat. 
    Wind powerEnergy created from the wind. 
    Tidal powerEnergy created from the movement of the sea. 
    Hydroelectric powerHydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. 
    GeothermalRelating to or produced by the internal heat of the earth. 
    SustainableAble to be maintained at a certain rate or level. 
    Global WarmingGlobal warming is the rise in temperature of the earth's atmosphere.  
    Carbon footprintThe amount of Carbon Dioxide which is emitted as a result of our own lifestyles. 
    Greenhouse effectThe trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere, due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet's surface. 

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